Pupils should continue to develop a chronologically secure knowledge and understanding of British, local and world history, establishing clear narratives within and across the periods they study. They should note connections, contrasts and trends over time and develop the appropriate use of historical terms. They should regularly address and sometimes devise historically valid questions about change, cause, similarity and difference, and significance. They should construct informed responses that involve thoughtful selection and organisation of relevant historical information. They should understand how our knowledge of the past is constructed from a range of sources.
In planning to ensure the progression described above through teaching the British, local and world history outlined below, teachers should combine overview and depth studies to help pupils understand both the long arc of development and the complexity of specific aspects of the content.

Pupils should be taught about:

Changes in Britain from the Stone Age to the Iron Age

Examples (non-statutory)

This could include:

  • late Neolithic hunter-gatherers and early farmers, for example, Skara Brae
  • Bronze Age religion, technology and travel, for example, Stonehenge
  • Iron Age hill forts: tribal kingdoms, farming, art and culture

The Roman Empire and its impact on Britain

Examples (non-statutory)

This could include:

  • Julius Caesar’s attempted invasion in 55-54 BC
  • the Roman Empire by AD 42 and the power of its army
  • successful invasion by Claudius and conquest, including Hadrian’s Wall
  • British resistance, for example, Boudica
  • ‘Romanisation’ of Britain: sites such as Caerwent and the impact of technology, culture and beliefs, including early Christianity

Britain’s settlement by Anglo-Saxons and Scots

Examples (non-statutory)

This could include:

  • Roman withdrawal from Britain in c. AD 410 and the fall of the western Roman Empire
  • Scots invasions from Ireland to north Britain (now Scotland)
  • Anglo-Saxon invasions, settlements and kingdoms: place names and village life
  • Anglo-Saxon art and culture
  • Christian conversion – Canterbury, Iona and Lindisfarne

The Viking and Anglo-Saxon struggle for the Kingdom of England to the time of Edward the Confessor

Examples (non-statutory)

This could include:

  • Viking raids and invasion
  • resistance by Alfred the Great and Athelstan, first king of England
  • further Viking invasions and Danegeld
  • Anglo-Saxon laws and justice
  • Edward the Confessor and his death in 1066

A local history study

Examples (non-statutory)

  • a depth study linked to one of the British areas of study listed above
  • a study over time tracing how several aspects of national history are reflected in the locality (this can go beyond 1066)
  • a study of an aspect of history or a site dating from a period beyond 1066 that is significant in the locality.

A study of an aspect or theme in British history that extends pupils’ chronological knowledge beyond 1066

Examples (non-statutory)

  • the changing power of monarchs using case studies such as John, Anne and Victoria
  • changes in an aspect of social history, such as crime and punishment from the Anglo-Saxons to the present or leisure and entertainment in the 20th Century
  • the legacy of Greek or Roman culture (art, architecture or literature) on later periods in British history, including the present day
  • a significant turning point in British history, for example, the first railways or the Battle of Britain

The achievements of the earliest civilizations – an overview of where and when the first civilizations appeared and a depth study of one of the following: Ancient Sumer; The Indus Valley; Ancient Egypt; The Shang Dynasty of Ancient China

Ancient Greece – a study of Greek life and achievements and their influence on the western world

A non-European society that provides contrasts with British history – one study chosen from: early Islamic civilization, including a study of Baghdad c. AD 900; Mayan civilization c. AD 900; Benin (West Africa) c. AD 900-1300.